In the skeletons of ancient people archaeologists often see traces of complex surgery - amputation, fracture healing and even ... craniotomy! The oldest known science of neurosurgery with a craniotomy - and successful, as has been shown, the patient recovered and wound alive - was made about 12 thousand years ago! Modern neurosurgeons pay attention to the high quality of the trepanation clean cuts, etc., and yet, one of the ancient tool surgeons could be, as we believe, a flint scraper. In southern Ukraine, in the Rostov Region 4 - 4.5 thousand years ago we lived tribes of the so-called "Catacomb culture '(dead, these people were hiding in their graves with special side nishey- catacomb). Paleoanthropologist SI Cruz found that many turtles there are clear signs of surgery.